Monday, January 31, 2011

Juan Cole: "Egypt is a Praetorian Regime"

Juan Cole: "Egypt is a Praetorian Regime"
Democracy Now

Hundreds of thousands have taken to the streets across Egypt today in the fourth day [from friday] of unprecedented protests against the 30-year rule of President Hosni Mubarak. We speak with University of Michigan professor of history Juan Cole. "The Arab world has seen, in the last three decades, a series of Arab nationalist regimes, relatively secular, which have become increasingly sclerotic," Cole says.

Juan Cole, professor of history at the University of Michigan. His writes regularly about Middle East issues on his blog, Informed Comment ... His most recent book is Engaging the Muslim World.

To Listen to the Episode

Democracy Now: 1/31/11 Reports on Egyptian Uprising

Democracy Now!’s Sharif Abdel Kouddous Live from Egypt: The Rebellion Grows Stronger

Massive protests in Egypt have entered their seventh day as tens of thousands pack into Tahrir Square in Cairo. Protesters are vowing to stay in the streets until President Hosni Mubarak resigns. A general strike was called for today, and a "million man march" is being organized for Tuesday. We speak with Democracy Now! senior producer Sharif Abdel Kouddous, who is in Cairo. "This is a popular uprising across all segments of society," Kouddous says. "People are so fed up with Mubarak, it’s hard to describe. They curse him. They want him to step down. And they will not leave the streets of Cairo, the streets of Egypt, until he does."


Repression and Poverty Underpin the Uprising in Egypt

Recent events in Egypt could be an opportunity for the United States to support the people of Egypt, but no Obama administration official has recommended publicly that President Hosni Mubarak should step down. We speak with Samer Shehata, assistant professor of Arab politics at Georgetown University, about the U.S.-backed Mubarak regime and the record inflation and poverty that underpin the ongoing protests. "In Egypt, from 2004 until the present, the government and its reforms were applauded in Washington by World Bank, the IMF and U.S. officials," Shehata says. "But what all of that masked was what was going on at the level of real people and ordinary lives." [includes rush transcript]


Made in the U.S.A.: Tear Gas, Tanks, Helicopters, Rifles and Fighter Planes in Egypt Funded and Built Largely by U.S. Defense Department and American Corporations

The United States has given billion dollars of military aid to Egypt over the last decades. Lockheed Martin, Boeing and General Electric have provided tanks, missiles, engines and more to the Hosni Mubarak regime. Following the massive popular uprising, U.S. foreign aid continues to flow to Egypt, although the Obama administration has placed the program under review. We speak with William Hartung, author of Prophets of War: Lockheed Martin and the Making of the Military-Industrial Complex, and Samer Shehata, assistant professor of Arab politics at Georgetown University.


Leading Egyptian Feminist, Nawal El Saadawi: "Women and Girls are Beside Boys in the Streets"

Renowned feminist and human rights activist Nawal El Saadawi was a political prisoner and exiled from Egypt for years. Now she has returned to Cairo, and she joins us to discuss the role of women during the last seven days of unprecedented protests. "Women and girls are beside boys in the streets," El Saadawi says. "We are calling for justice, freedom and equality, and real democracy and a new constitution, no discrimination between men and women, no discrimination between Muslims and Christians, to change the system... and to have a real democracy."

Deepa Kumar: The Rise of Anti-Muslim Hate

The rise of anti-Muslim hate
By Deepa Kumar
International Socialist Review

FROM ATTACKS at mosques and mobilizations against proposed mosque sites, to physical attacks on Muslims and Koran burnings, racism in the United States against Muslims and Arabs has reached new heights in recent months.

At the center of this storm has been the proposal to build an Islamic community center called Cordoba House—recently renamed Park51—two blocks from “Ground Zero,” the site of the World Trade Center towers destroyed on September 11, 2001. What began as a fairly non-controversial project, and one moreover that had the support of Mayor Michael Bloomberg and other New York City politicians, turned into a grave affront to the victims of 9/11 within a matter of a few months.

The effort to brand the center as the “victory mosque” was led by far right-wing groups associated with the Tea Party movement. These forces along with sections of the Republican Party were so successful in setting the terms of debate that anywhere between 541 and 682 percent of Americans expressed opposition to the project at its proposed location.

The speed at which the campaign against the project was able to shift public opinion—in spite of the fact that the current building, the former site of a Burlington Coat Factory, has been used as a Muslim prayer center for two years, and is located two and a half long Manhattan blocks from the site of the Twin Towers, in a neighborhood which includes a strip club and an off-track betting office—is a strong indication of how politicians, the media, and popular culture have successfully demonized Muslims in the United States over the past several years.

Cordoba House: The beginnings

In 2009, Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf, who has served as a cleric in the downtown Manhattan area for over a quarter century, proposed the construction of a community center modeled on the Jewish Community Center in Manhattan and the 92nd Street Y. The goal of the center was to promote greater understanding of the Muslim community.
The name “Cordoba House” refers to the city of Cordoba in Spain, which during Europe’s “Dark Ages” was a leading cultural center of the Muslim empire that ruled the Iberian penninsula. Cordoba represented not only a high point of intellectual development, but also marked a period of peaceful co-existence among Muslims, Christians, and Jews.

Imam Rauf, who positions himself as a “moderate Muslim” (he gave training speeches for the FBI and the State Department after 9/11), envisioned a community center with recreation facilities like a swimming pool, basketball court, gym, a culinary school, art studios, a child care center, and badly needed prayer space for the Muslim community in downtown Manhattan. His vision was to enable people of all faiths to interact.

The project was so non-threatening that even Mayor Bloomberg gave his support to it, and when the controversy hit, defended it in a speech delivered on August 3 with the Statue of Liberty in the background.3 When the New York Times ran a front-page story in December 2009, the overall tone was positive. The Times quoted Feisal saying, “We want to push back against the extremists.”4 A mother of a 9/11 victim also publicly backed the Islamic center.5

The project was even applauded by right-wing Fox anchor Laura Ingraham. While Ingraham, in an interview with Cordoba House co-founder Daisy Khan in December 2009, could barely hold back her anti-Muslim prejudices, arguing that Muslim majority countries from Saudi Arabia to Lebanon are intolerant toward Christians, she nevertheless gave her support to Khan, saying, “I can’t find many people who really have a problem with it.… I like what you’re trying to do.”6

On May 6, 2010, the New York City Community Board voted unanimously to approve the project.

Enter Stop Islamization of America

As Salon reporter Justin Elliott has documented, the Cordoba House project did not begin to become controversial until May 2010.

In response to the Community Board’s decision, Pamela Geller, a right-wing blogger, posted an entry titled, “Monster Mosque Pushes Ahead in Shadow of World Trade Center Islamic Death and Destruction.” In it, she wrote, “This is Islamic domination and expansionism. The location is no accident. Just as Al-Aqsa was built on top of the Temple in Jerusalem.” The next day her group, Stop Islamization of America (SIOA), launched “Campaign Offensive: Stop the 911 Mosque!”7

Stop Islamization of America, premised on the notion that Muslims are conspiring to take over the United States, called a protest for May 29 against what Geller called the “911 Monster Mosque.”

Geller is a fan of far-right Dutch politician Geert Wilders (and the feeling is mutual, given his glowing blurb for the book she co-authored on the Obama presidency), and an admirer of open fascists and street gangs such as the English Defense League that routinely attack Muslims and immigrants. She once claimed that Black South Africans were launching a “genocide” against whites.8 A staunch Zionist, in an Israeli column she calls the term “Palestinian” “fallacious,” and she exhorted Israelis to, “Stand loud and proud. Give up nothing. Turn over not a pebble. For every rocket fired, drop a MOAB. Take back Gaza. Secure Judea and Samaria.”9

Subsequently, the New York Post ran articles that extensively quoted Geller and her vitriolic rhetoric. One article claimed falsely that Cordoba House’s opening date was set for September 11, 2011. This was the moment, Elliott suggests, when this story spread like wildfire, gaining media attention not only on Fox and other conservative outlets, but also the mainstream media.

Socialism/Marxism: Peace and Conflict Studies Archive

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International Viewpoint ["International Viewpoint, the monthly English-language magazine of the Fourth International, is a window to radical alternatives world-wide, carrying reports, analysis and debates from all corners of the globe. Correspondents in over 50 countries report on popular struggles, and the debates that are shaping the left of tomorrow."]

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Liberation News ["The Party for Socialism and Liberation is a working-class party of leaders and activists from many different struggles, founded to promote the movement for revolutionary change. Capitalism—the system in which all wealth and power is held by a tiny group of billionaires and their state—is the source of the main problems confronting humanity today: imperialist war, poverty, exploitation, layoffs, unemployment, racism, sexism, lesbian/gay/bi/trans oppression, environmental destruction, mass imprisonment, unionbusting and more. We are fighting for socialism, a system where the wealth of society belongs to those who produce it—the workers—and is used in a planned and sustainable way for the benefit of all. In place of greed, domination and exploitation, we stand for solidarity, friendship and cooperation between all peoples. The Party for Socialism and Liberation seeks to bring together leaders and organizers from the many struggles taking place across the country. The most crucial requirement for membership is the dedication to undertake this most important and most necessary of all tasks—building a new revolutionary workers’ party in the heart of world imperialism. At the same time as we aim for revolution in this country, we stand for defense of the existing workers’ states, the national liberation movements, and for workers and oppressed people around the world. The magnitude of our tasks will be matched by our determination to win."]

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We Are Many ("There are so many voices and so many struggles scattered across the planet (and the internet). We are attempting to gather these voices "in unvanquishable number" into a site that can offer a platform and, we hope, inspiration for action. The obstacles activists face today, like those faced by workers and the oppressed in Shelley's day, are great. But our numbers are greater, and with solidarity and unity we can hope to begin to make changes in the systems we oppose. This site cannot be exhaustive, and that is not our intent. We are simply trying to offer a small sampling of the best radical audio and video sources we know of. We know that the internet provides vast opportunities to share information and ideas, but we do not believe that this can replace the real actions of real people. We encourage our visitors, friends, fellow-travelers, and comrades to take inspiration from the people included here into their own struggles for justice. The idea of this website first came from the annual Socialism conferences, packed with so many speakers and discussions and debates and our desire to share these discussions with others on a single platform. We had collected hundreds of talks and meetings over the years, but had never shared them in a coherent way. We hope you find this effort useful.")

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Paul le Blanc: What Do Socialists Say About Democracy?

What Do Socialists Say About Democracy?
by Paul le Blanc
International Socialist Review

...

There are additional realities that flow from this, and you don’t have to be a genius like Albert Einstein to figure out what they are. The fact remains, however, that Einstein did discuss the question in 1949 and expressed himself rather well, so let’s see what he had to say:

Private capital tends to become concentrated in few hands, partly because of competition among the capitalists, and partly because technological development and the increasing division of labor encourage the formation of larger units of production at the expense of smaller ones. The result of these developments is an oligarchy of private capital the enormous power of which cannot be effectively checked even by a democratically organized political society. This is true since the members of legislative bodies are selected by political parties, largely financed or otherwise influenced by private capitalists who, for all practical purposes, separate the electorate from the legislature. The consequence is that the representatives of the people do not in fact sufficiently protect the interests of the underprivileged sections of the population. Moreover, under existing conditions, private capitalists inevitably control, directly or indirectly, the main sources of information (press, radio, education). It is thus extremely difficult, and indeed in most cases quite impossible, for the individual citizen to come to objective conclusions and to make intelligent use of his political rights.16


More recently, Sheldon Wolin, Professor Emeritus of Political Theory at Princeton University, updated some of Einstein’s points. To understand what he says, you need to understand Greek—so I will now give you a Greek language lesson. We got the word “democracy” from the ancient Greeks—demokratia, derived from demos (the people) and kratia (rule). Sheldon Wolin says: “It is obvious that today—in the age of communication conglomerates, media pundits, television, public opinion surveys, and political consultants—the exercise of popular will, the expression of its voice, and the framing of its needs have been emptied of all promise of autonomy.” No kidding! Noting that “American politicians and publicists claim that theirs is the world’s greatest democracy,” Wolin tells us, instead (and remember, “demos” means “the people”): “The reality is a democracy without the demos as actor. The voice is that of a ventriloquist democracy.”17 That is, “we the people” seem to be expressing ourselves politically, but really what is being expressed comes from the wealthy elites and their minions who control the economy, the larger culture, the sources of information, the shaping of opinion, and the political process as a whole.

Many anarchists, quite understandably, denounce the very concept of democracy as a swindle that should be rejected by all honest revolutionaries. Marxists argue, however, that the swindle must be rejected—but democracy should be fought for. It does seem, however, that given the many ways in which the electoral process in the United States is stacked in favor of capitalism and capitalists, a case can be made, at least in the present time, for our efforts to be concentrated outside the electoral arena. Just as politics involves much, much more than elections and electoral parties, so the struggle for democracy—as the comments of Howard Zinn suggest—can often be pursued far more effectively in workplaces, in communities, in schools, in the streets, in the larger culture through non-electoral struggles, and creative work of various kinds. The key for us is to draw more and more people into pathways of thinking and pathways of action that go in the direction of questioning established authority and giving people a meaningful say about the realities and decisions affecting their lives. That is the opposite of how so-called democracy—focused on elections—actually works in our country. This comes through brilliantly in the description of the wonderful anarchist educator Paul Goodman regarding the U.S. political system in the early 1960s:

Concretely, our system of government at present comprises the military-industrial complex, the secret paramilitary agencies, the scientific war corporations, the blimps, the horses’ asses, the police, the administrative bureaucracy, the career diplomats, the lobbies, the corporations that contribute Party funds, the underwriters and real-estate promoters that batten on urban renewal, the official press and the official opposition press, the sounding-off and jockeying for the next election, the National Unity, etc., etc. All this machine is grinding along by the momentum of the power and profit motives and style long since built into it; it cannot make decisions of a kind radically different than it does. Even if an excellent man happens to be elected to office, he will find that it is no longer a possible instrument for social change on any major issues of war and peace and the way of life of the Americans.18


Elections can sometimes be used effectively by revolutionaries to reach out to masses of people with ideas, information, analyses, and proposals that challenge the established order. If elected, they may also find that—aside from proposing and voting for positive, if relatively modest, social reforms—they will also be able to use elected office to help inform, mobilize, and support their constituents in non-electoral mass struggles. But the insertion of revolutionaries into the existing capitalist state will not be sufficient to bring about the “true democracy” that Marx spoke of, because they would find themselves within political structures designed to maintain the existing power relations. They would not have the power to end capitalist oppression or to transform the capitalist state into a structure permitting actual “rule by the people.” Marx and Engels themselves came to the conclusion that it would not be possible for the working class simply to use the existing state—designed by our exploiters and oppressors—to create a new society. The workers would need to smash the oppressive apparatus in order to allow for a genuinely democratic rule, through their own movements and organizations, and through new and more democratic governmental structures.

It is possible that some revolutionaries might be elected before such revolutionary change restructures the state. But they can be effective in what they actually want to do only by working in tandem with broader social movements and with non-electoral struggles. These movements and struggles must be working to empower masses of people in our economy and society, and to put increasing pressure on all politicians and government figures, and also on capitalist owners and managers, to respond to the needs and the will of the workers, of the oppressed, and of the majority of the people. Remember C. L. R. James’s comment: “To the degree that the [working class] mobilizes itself and the great masses of the people, the socialist revolution is advanced. The [working class] mobilizes itself as a self-acting force through its own committees, unions, parties, and other organizations.” These are, potentially, the seeds of the workers’ democracy—germinating in the present—that will take root and grow, challenging and displacing the undemocratic and corrupted structures associated with the so-called bourgeois democracies.

Democracy and “communism”

Before we conclude, we need to look more closely, even if briefly, at a contradiction that seems to have arisen between the notion of democracy and the realities of what came to be known as Communism. Within the tradition of twentieth-century Communism, many (in sharp contrast to Marx) came to counterpose revolution and communism to democracy as such. This can’t be justified, but it needs to be explained. Lenin, Trotsky, and the Bolsheviks led a super-democratic upsurge of the laboring masses, resulting in the initial triumph of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Immediately afterward, Russia was overwhelmed by foreign military invasions, economic blockades, and a very bloody civil war nurtured by hostile foreign capitalist powers. In that horrific situation, a brutal one-party dictatorship was established to hold things together. The Bolsheviks (even comrades Lenin and Trotsky) came up with highly dubious theoretical justifications for the dictatorship, which caused Rosa Luxemburg—correctly—to sharply criticize them, even as she supported the Russian Revolution. The justifications they put forward were soon used as an ideological cover for the crystallization of a vicious bureaucratic tyranny propagated, in the name of “Communism,” by Joseph Stalin and others, ultimately miseducating millions of people throughout the world.19

Both Lenin and Trotsky, and also many others who were true to the revolutionary-democratic essence of the Bolshevik tradition, sought to push back this horrendous corruption of the Communist cause. But it was too late, and after the late 1920s such words as Communism, Marxism, and socialism became wrongly identified throughout the world with that horrendous, totalitarian, murderous corruption represented by the Stalin regime. The ideology and practices of Stalinism are close to being the opposite of classical Marxism.

To Read the Entire Essay

Sharif Abdel Kouddous: Live From Egypt -- The Rebellion Grows Stronger

[This is a report from Sunday, Democracy Now is providing live streaming of reports from Egypt. The UK Guardian is also providing some excellent live updates in the format of a streaming timeline: "Egypt protests - live updates"]

Live From Egypt: The Rebellion Grows Stronger
By Sharif Abdel Kouddous
Democracy Now

Cairo, Egypt—In the second day of defiance of a military curfew, more than 150,000 protesters packed into Tahrir Square Sunday to call on President Hosni Mubarak to step down. The mood was celebratory and victorious. For most, it was not a question of if, but when, Mubarak would leave.

Military tanks have been stationed at entrance points around the square with soldiers forming barricades across streets and alleyways. In another departure from ordinary Cairo life, people quickly formed orderly queues to get through the army checkpoints. Soldiers frisked people and checked their identification cards. One soldier said they were making sure no one with police or state security credentials could enter.

Reports are widespread that many of the looters in Cairo are, in fact, remnants of the police and state security forces that were forced into a full retreat during Friday’s mass street revolt. In addition, hundreds, perhaps thousands, of prisoners were released from prisons in Fayyoum and Tora. Many believe it’s all part of an organized campaign by the regime to create lawlessness in the city in a last gasp attempt to maintain its grip on power. The headline of Al-Masry Al-Youm today blared: "Conspiracy by Interior Ministry to Foment Chaos."

But those concerns largely evaporate inside Tahrir Square where a blossoming of mass public political expression is taking place. Never before during Mubarak’s reign have so many gathered in one place in popular protest. Tens of thousands of people clapped in unison and chanted slogans ranging from the serious and patriotic to humorous rhymes filled with biting wit. Many had spent the night in the square and scores planned to stay longer.

A helicopter hovered overhead and two military fighter jets made repeated flybys, coming in at a lower altitude each time until the noise became deafening. Whatever the intended message, the crowd was not intimidated. They cheered, held up victory signs and waved in defiance. After emerging victorious in Friday’s battle with the interior ministry’s forces, there is little that can quell the enthusiasm of the Egyptian people or their full-throated call for change.

Mubarak’s attempt to placate the mass uprising by naming two of his top party officials, Omar Suleiman, the country’s infamous intelligence chief, as his first Vice President and Ahmed Shafik, a former Air Force commander, as Prime Minister have been met with strong opposition amongst the protesters.

"Omar Suleiman is not an option. The people are chanting against him today," said Nazly Hussein, a 30 year-old protester in Tahrir. "People want to bring down the system...I don’t think anyone is going home until the president and everyone around him leaves."

Mohamed El Baradei–the Nobel Peace laureate and former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency–arrived in Tahrir Square today to address the crowds. Baradei’s reputation is beyond reproach and he commands respect amongst most Egyptians but many say he has lived outside of the country for too long and criticize him for not taking part in earlier street protests. Nevertheless, some are calling on him to be included in some type of transitional government.

The one unifying theme, however, remains Mubarak. Everyone wants him out and it is difficult to imagine what iota of support he holds in any segment of Egyptian society save for his very small inner circle. And so, the people wait. It turns out six days of revolt will not be enough to overturn thirty years in power. But patience is wearing thin.

One man who is sure Mubarak’s time is up is my uncle Mohamed Abd El Qudoos [Arabic is phonetic and the English spelling of our last name varies within the family]. A leading opposition protester, Mohamed is the head of the Freedom Committee in the Press Syndicate, which has ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. He has been arrested countless times over the years by police and state security forces for leading small-scale demonstrations. Last week he was arrested on Tuesday and then arrested again during Friday’s uprising. A picture of him being dragged away by plainclothes police was shown on international news outlets across the globe. He was eventually released and able to join Saturday’s protests. In Tahrir Square Sunday, dozens of people came to pay tribute to his struggle. They shook his hand, kissed him hello and took pictures with him.

"This is a dream come true," Mohamed said, sitting in the middle of the packed square in his standard attire: suit, flag and megaphone. "Remember when I would stand on the steps of the press syndicate to protest? I would stand alone. Now look at everyone. They are all here."

Sharif Abdel Kouddous is a senior producer for the radio/TV show Democracy Now.

Link

Cornel West on Charles Rangel, Bush & Kanye West, and Why Obama Administration "Seems to Have Very Little Concern for Poor People"

Cornel West on Charles Rangel, Bush & Kanye West, and Why Obama Admin "Seems to Have Very Little Concern for Poor People"
Democracy Now

Princeton University professor and author Cornel West join us to talk about Rep. Charles Rangel (D-NY) being censured for ethics violations, President George W. Bush saying the worst moment of his presidency was when Kanye West called him a racist, and President Obama’s policies toward the poor. "The Obama administration seems to have very little concern for poor people and their social misery," West said.

To Listen to the Episode

Friday, January 28, 2011

Stevie Wonder: I Was Made to Love Her

Timothy Karr: One U.S. Corporation's Role in Egypt's Brutal Crackdown

(via Literaghost)

One U.S. Corporation's Role in Egypt's Brutal Crackdown
by Timothy Karr
Huffington Post

The open Internet's role in popular uprising is now undisputed. Look no further than Egypt, where the Mubarak regime today reportedly shut down Internet and cell phone communications -- a troubling predictor of the fierce crackdown that has followed.

What's even more troubling is news that one American company is aiding Egypt's harsh response through sales of technology that makes this repression possible.

The Internet's favorite offspring -- Twitter, Facebook and YouTube -- are now heralded on CNN, BBC and Fox News as flag-bearers for a new era of citizen journalism and activism. (More and more these same news organizations have abandoned their own, more traditional means of newsgathering to troll social media for breaking information.)

But the open Internet's power cuts both ways: The tools that connect, organize and empower protesters can also be used to hunt them down.

Telecom Egypt, the nation's dominant phone and Internet service provider, is a state-run enterprise, which made it easy on Friday morning for authorities to pull the plug and plunge much of the nation into digital darkness.

Moreover, Egypt also has the ability to spy on Internet and cell phone users, by opening their communication packets and reading their contents. Iran used similar methods during the 2009 unrest to track, imprison and in some cases, "disappear" truckloads of cyber-dissidents.

The companies that profit from sales of this technology need to be held to a higher standard. One in particular is an American firm, Narus of Sunnyvale, Calif., which has sold Telecom Egypt "real-time traffic intelligence" equipment.

Narus, now owned by Boeing, was founded in 1997 by Israeli security experts to create and sell mass surveillance systems for governments and large corporate clients.

To Read the Rest of the Article

Henry Giroux: Howard Zinn, A Public Intellectual Who Mattered

[Howard Zinn died a year ago on January 27th. Giroux's essay below is a good testament to his continuing importance. Our remembrance from last year: "So long Howard Zinn. It’s been good to know ya"]


Howard Zinn, A Public Intellectual Who Mattered
by Henry Giroux
TruthOut

In 1977 I took my first job in higher education at Boston University. One reason I went there was because Howard Zinn was teaching there at the time. As a high school teacher, Howard's book, "Vietnam: the Logic of Withdrawal," published in 1968, had a profound effect on me. Not only was it infused with a passion and sense of commitment that I admired as a high school teacher and tried to internalize as part of my own pedagogy, but it captured something about the passion, sense of commitment and respect for solidarity that came out of Howard's working-class background. It offered me a language, history and politics that allowed me to engage critically and articulate my opposition to the war that was raging at the time.

I grew up in Providence, Rhode Island, and rarely met or read any working-class intellectuals. After reading James Baldwin, hearing William Kunstler and Stanley Aronowitz give talks, I caught a glimpse of what it meant to occupy such a fragile, contradictory and often scorned location. But reading Howard gave me the theoretical tools to understand more clearly how the mix of biography, cultural capital and class location could be finely honed into a viable and laudable politics.

Later, as I got to know Howard personally, I was able to fill in the details about his working-class background and his intellectual development. We had grown up in similar neighborhoods, shared a similar cultural capital and we both probably learned more from the streets than we had ever learned in formal schooling. There was something about Howard's fearlessness, his courage, his willingness to risk not just his academic position, but also his life, that marked him as special - untainted by the often corrupting privileges of class entitlement.

Before I arrived in Boston to begin teaching at Boston University, Howard was a mythic figure for me and I was anxious to meet him in real life. How I first encountered him was perfectly suited to the myth. While walking to my first class, as I was nearing the university, filled with the trepidation of teaching a classroom of students, I caught my first glimpse of Howard. He was standing on a box with a bullhorn in front of the Martin Luther King memorial giving a talk calling for opposition to Silber's attempt to undermine any democratic or progressive function of the university. The image so perfectly matched my own understanding of Howard that I remember thinking to myself, this has to be the perfect introduction to such a heroic figure.

Soon afterwards, I wrote him a note and rather sheepishly asked if we could meet. He got back to me in a day; we went out to lunch soon afterwards, and a friendship developed that lasted over 30 years. While teaching at Boston University, I often accompanied Howard when he went to high schools to talk about his published work or his plays. I sat in on many of his lectures and even taught one of his graduate courses. He loved talking to students and they were equally attracted to him. His pedagogy was dynamic, directive, focused, laced with humor and always open to dialog and interpretation. He was a magnificent teacher, who shredded all notions of the classroom as a place that was as uninteresting as it was often irrelevant to larger social concerns. He urged his students not just to learn from history, but to use it as a resource to sharpen their intellectual prowess and hone their civic responsibilities.

Howard refused to separate what he taught in the university classroom, or any forum for that matter, from the most important problems and issues facing the larger society. But he never demanded that students follow his own actions; he simply provided a model of what a combination of knowledge, teaching and social commitment meant. Central to Howard's pedagogy was the belief that teaching students how to critically understand a text or any other form of knowledge was not enough. They also had to engage such knowledge as part of a broader engagement with matters of civic agency and social responsibility. How they did that was up to them, but, most importantly, they had to link what they learned to a self-reflective understanding of their own responsibility as engaged individuals and social actors.

He offered students a range of options. He wasn't interested in molding students in the manner of Pygmalion, but in giving them the widest possible set of choices and knowledge necessary for them to view what they learned as an act of freedom and empowerment. There is a certain poetry in his pedagogical style and scholarship and it is captured in his belief that one can take a position without standing still. He captured this sentiment well in a comment he made in his autobiography, "You Can't Be Neutral on a Moving Train." He wrote:

From the start, my teaching was infused with my own history. I would try to be fair to other points of view, but I wanted more than 'objectivity'; I wanted students to leave my classes not just better informed, but more prepared to relinquish the safety of silence, more prepared to speak up, to act against injustice wherever they saw it. This, of course, was a recipe for trouble.


In fact, Howard was under constant attack by John Silber, then president of Boston University, because of his scholarship and teaching. One expression of that attack took the form of freezing Howard's salary for years.

To Read the Rest of the Essay

Van Jones: The Economic Injustice of Plastic

Yes Magazine

Global Voices: Egypt Protests 2011

Egypt Protests 2011
Global Voices

Inspired by the Tunisian uprising that overthrew longtime president Ben Ali, Egyptian citizens and activists organized mass protests on January 25 calling for economic reform and an end to President Hosni Mubarak's 30-year rule. Expectations ran high, and so did public tension as thousands demonstrated in Cairo and other cities, as well as in front of Egyptian embassies abroad. On January 25, Twitter was blocked and mobile phones were cut off, but news of arrests and police repression still circulated online (hashtag #Jan25). Early on January 28, however, the Internet was widely cut off throughout Egypt, shortly before the day's protests were to begin.

At least two protesters and one security officer have died, and many more are reported injured by tear gas and in clashes with police.

January 25 is a public holiday in Egypt marking the anniversary of a 1952 incident when the Egyptian police stood by the people in resistance against the British occupation.

To Access the Archive of Citizen Media Reports, Photos and Videos

Thursday, January 27, 2011

Deerhunter: Desire Lines

Creative Screenwriting Magazine: Co-writer/Director Matteo Garrone and Co-writer Maurizio Braucci on Gomorrah

Gomorrah Q&A
Creative Screenwriting Magazine



Senior Editor Jeff Goldsmith interviews co-writer/director Matteo Garrone and co-writer Maurizio Braucci about Gomorrah

To Listen to the Interview

HUM 221: Anarchism

(Under Construction)

The Great Chain of Being (All the previous ideologies we have studied subscribed to "proper" hierarchies -- what challenge does anarchism provide to the notion of natural and/or god-given hierarchies)





Some introductions to contemporary Anarchism:

AK Press: What Do You Mean by "Anarchism." [More at AK Press and Revolution by the Book)

Crimethinc: Fighting For Our Lives -- An Anarchist Primer [More at Crimethinc]

Noam Chomsky: The Relevance of Anarcho-Syndicalism

Michael Benton: On Anarchism

HUM 221: Socialism Reading

(Under construction)

Probably the best site for researching Marxist histories, theories and concepts: Marxists Internet Archive

For an introduction to the wide range of actually existing socialist economics ignored in Nancy Love's chapter, check out the only magazine I am currently subscribing to Monthly Review

"The history of any country, presented as the history of a family, conceals fierce conflicts of interest (sometimes exploding, most often repressed) between conquerors and conquered, masters and slaves, capitalists and workers, dominators and dominated in race and sex. And in such a world of conflict, a world of victims and executioners, it is the job of thinking people, as Albert Camus suggested, not to be on the side of the executioners."

--Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States

"Which Side Are You On" by The Dropkick Murphys



The People Speak (2009 documentary commemorating Howard Zinn's landmark history book A People's History of the United States and its companion volume Voices of a People's History of the United States)

Bill Moyers states:

There's a long tradition in America of people power, and no one has done more to document it than the historian, Howard Zinn. Listen to this paragraph from his most famous book. Quote: "If democracy were to be given any meaning, if it were to go beyond the limits of capitalism and nationalism, this would not come, if history were any guide, from the top. It would come through citizen's movements, educating, organizing, agitating, striking, boycotting, demonstrating, threatening those in power with disruption of the stability they needed." This son of a working class family got a job in the Brooklyn shipyards and then flew as a bombardier during World War II. He went to NYU on the G.I. Bill, taught history at Spellman College in Atlanta, where he was first active in the Civil Rights movement, and then became a professor of political science at Boston University.

There, he and his students sought a more down-to-earth way of looking at American history. And when no book could provide it, Zinn decided to write one. Since his publication in 1980, "A People's History of the United States" has sold more than two million copies.




The British political philosopher Edmund Burke, cited as a major influence for conservatives and liberals, is revered for his attacks on The French Revolution. Socialists would make the case that he is willfully ignoring the historical violence that led to the revolution and is hypocritical in celebrating the "Glorious Revolution of 1688" as a more "civilized" means for addressing injustice. Here is Julien Bell at the 2010 Socialist Forum providing a different perspective on the cause and effects of The French Revolution:

Julien Bell's "A People's History of the French Revolution" (audio)

So the beginning question in the reading that Nancy S. Love throws out for us "Is Socialism dead?" What do you think? Why or why not?

Nancy S. Love provides us with an incomplete, awkward and hazy introduction to Socialism, but to be fair, and she remarks upon this, it is a vast history that is difficult to summarize in a small chapter. Unfortunately, she compounds the mess of a chapter by not updating it for the 2nd edition to cover Latin American socialist movements and other current resistance movements which would have given a different understanding of Socialism's potential and its current relevance for our times:

The Take (Canada/Argentina: Avi Lewis, 2004)


South of the Border (USA: Oliver Stone, 2009)
"There's a revolution underway in South America, but most of the world doesn't know it. Oliver Stone sets out on a road trip across five countries to explore the social and political movements as well as the mainstream media's misperception of South America while interviewing seven of its elected presidents. In casual conversations with Presidents Hugo Chavez (Venezuela), Evo Morales (Bolivia), Lula da Silva (Brazil), Cristina Kirchner (Argentina), as well as her husband and ex-President Nestor Kirchner, Fernando Lugo (Paraguay), Rafael Correa (Ecuador), and Raul Castro (Cuba), Stone gains unprecedented access and sheds new light upon the exciting transformations in the region."


Not to mention vibrant economic and environmental struggles in the global south:

Blue Gold: World Water Wars (USA: Sam Bozzo, 2008)
[Includes Bolivian resistance to colonialization/privatization of their water resources)


Crude (USA: Joe Berlinger, 2009)


The End of Poverty (USA: Philippe Diaz, 2008)


and increasingly in the USA

Inside Job (USA: Charles Ferguson, 2010)


The Americans for a long time have been providing the European world with the proof that the bourgeois republic is the republic of capitalist businessmen in which politics is business like any other.

--Friedrich Engels in a letter to an American friend in 1893

Creative Screenwriting Magazine: Joel & Ethan Coen - True Grit Q&A

Joel & Ethan Coen - True Grit Q&A
Creative Screenwriting Magazine



Senior Editor Jeff Goldsmith interviews co-writers and co-directors Joel and Ethan Coen about True Grit

To Listen to the Interview

Noam Chomsky: Activism, Anarchism and Power

Noam Chomsky -- Activism, Anarchism, and Power
Conversations with History

On this edition of Conversations with History, UC Berkeley's Harry Kreisler is joined by linguist and political activist Noam Chomsky to discuss activism, anarchism and the role the United States plays in the world today.

To Watch the Conversation

Max Fisher: Kentucky Creationist Museum Will Feature Dragons, Unicorns

Kentucky Creationist Museum Will Feature Dragons, Unicorns
By Max Fisher
The Atlantic

Kentucky's state-backed $150 million creationist theme park, The Ark Encounter, will allow visitors to explore a literal interpretation of the Bible's story of Noah and the ark. But pseudonymous liberal Kentucky blogger Media Czech raises two important questions about that interpretation and how it will be manifest in theme park form. First, were there dinosaurs on the original ark? Second, what about unicorns?

Now, the blogger has found answers to both questions at Answers In Genesis, the official blog of the group behind The Ark Encounter. The group says "yes," to both, which implies that their creationist theme park will include dinosaurs and unicorns on the Ark. Here's Answers In Genesis explaining why dinosaurs were on the Ark, although the group prefers to call them "dragons":

Being land animals, dinosaurs (or dragons of the land) were created on Day Six (Genesis 1:24–31), went aboard Noah’s Ark (Genesis 6:20), and then came off the Ark into the post-Flood world (Genesis 8:16–19). It makes sense that many cultures would have seen these creatures from time to time before they died out.


And here's their position on Biblical unicorns:

The biblical unicorn was a real animal, not an imaginary creature. ... The absence of a unicorn in the modern world should not cause us to doubt its past existence. (Think of the dodo bird. It does not exist today, but we do not doubt that it existed in the past.). ... To think of the biblical unicorn as a fantasy animal is to demean God’s Word, which is true in every detail.


The Kentucky blogger fumes:

Kentucky will now be known as the state whose governor endorsed and gave $40 million in tax breaks to people who want to tell children that science and history explain that a 600 year old man herded dinosaurs, fire-breathing dragons and unicorns onto a big boat 4,000 years ago.


Link to Original and Hyperlinked Resources

Wednesday, January 26, 2011

War/Conflicts: Peace and Conflict Studies Archive

"60 Words." Radiolab (April 18, 2014) ["This hour we pull apart one sentence, written in the hours after September 11th, 2001, that has led to the longest war in U.S. history. We examine how just 60 words of legal language have blurred the line between war and peace. In the hours after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, a lawyer sat down in front of a computer and started writing a legal justification for taking action against those responsible. The language that he drafted and that President George W. Bush signed into law - called the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) - has at its heart one single sentence, 60 words long. Over the last decade, those 60 words have become the legal foundation for the "war on terror." In this collaboration with BuzzFeed, reporter Gregory Johnsen tells us the story of how this has come to be one of the most important, confusing, troubling sentences of the past 12 years. We go into the meetings that took place in the chaotic days just after 9/11, speak with Congresswoman Barbara Lee and former Congressman Ron Dellums about the vote on the AUMF. We hear from former White House and State Department lawyers John Bellinger & Harold Koh. We learn how this legal language unleashed Guantanamo, Navy Seal raids and drone strikes. And we speak with journalist Daniel Klaidman, legal expert Benjamin Wittes and Virginia Senator Tim Kaine about how these words came to be interpreted, and what they mean for the future of war and peace."]

Ali, Mostafa and Hani Shukrallah. "What Happened to the Egyptian Revolution?" We Are Many (June 2013)

All Watched Over By Machines of Loving Grace (United Kingdom: Adam Curtis, 2011)

Aravamudan, Srinivas. "Introduction: Perpetual War." PMLA (October 2009)

"Architects of War." To the Best of Our Knowledge (October 5, 2009)

Armah, Esther. "Syria: The Politics of Swagger/" New Black Man (in Exile) (September 10, 2013)

Armstrong, Hannah and May Ying Welsh. "Admin Aids French Bombing of Mali After U.S.-Trained Forces Join Rebels in Uranium-Rich Region." Democracy Now (January 15, 2013)

Assange, Julian. "WikiLeaks, War and Resisting Government Crackdown." Democracy Now (December 31, 2010)

"'Astoundingly Disturbing': Obama Administration Claims Power to Wage Endless War Across the Globe." Democracy Now (May 17, 2013)

Attalah, Lina, Sharif Abdel Kouddous, and Chris Toensing. "Massacre in Cairo: Egypt on Brink After Worst Violence Since 2011 Revolution." Democracy Now (August 15, 2013)

Auken, Laurie Van. The still- classified 28 pages of the JICI dealing with terrorist financing, the 9/11 families’ stalled lawsuit to bankrupt the terrorists and the direct interventions by the White House to protect the Saudi regime against the justice-seeking families, and the many uninvestigated questions and facts covered up by the 9/11 commission. Boiling Frogs (August 19, 2011)

Bacevich, Andrew. "Naming Our Nameless War: How Many Years Will It Be?" Common Dreams (May 28, 2013)

Ball, Norman. "The Power of Auteurs and the Last Man Standing: Adam Curtis' Documentary Nightmares." Bright Lights Film Journal #78 (November 2012)

Bamford, James. "The Man Who Sold the War: Meet John Rendon, Bush's general in the propaganda war." Rolling Stone (November 17, 2005)

Barber, Johnny. "International Peace Day from Kabul, Afghanistan." ZNet (September 21, 2012)

Barghouti, Mustafa. "Is There Room for Gandhi in Palestine?" Open Source (April 30, 2010)

Bass, Gary J. "The Blood Telegram." Lapham's Quarterly Podcast #52 (December 4, 2013) ["How did Pakistan's free elections in 1970 lead to a genocidal military crackdown against East Pakistan in 1971? And how did that result in the creation of an independent Bangladesh? And why was the United States involved? Professor Gary J. Bass explains the terrible events, which he chronicled in his book The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide."]

Belasco, Amy. "The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11." (Congressional Research Service: September 2, 2010)

Bennett, W. Lance, Regina G. Lawrence, and Steven Livingston. When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007: 13-28

Bennis, Phyllis. "As Fighting Continues in Tripoli, A Look at Role of the U.S., NATO and Oil Firms in Libya Uprising." Democracy Now (August 23, 2011)

---. "As Strikes on Syria Loom, Is U.S. Ignoring a Diplomatic Track That Could Prevent More Violence?" Democracy Now (August 28, 2013)

---. "Israel-Palestine Peace Talks." Law and Disorder Radio (August 12, 2013)

Berends, Andrew, et al. "The War Comes Home: Washington’s Battle Against America’s Veterans." Making Contact (July 1, 2009)

Beyond the Frame: Alternative Perspectives on the War on Terrorism." Media Education Foundation (2004)

Bhagwati, Anuradha, et al. "Many Lines of Fire: Women at War." Making Contact (May 27, 2009)

Blum, William. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions since World War II. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995.

Blumenthal, Max. "Max Blumenthal At “Against Israeli Apartheid” in New York City" Law and Disorder Radio (April 7, 2014)["... a speech by award winning journalist, and best selling author Max Blumenthal speaking at the event Against Israeli Apartheid along with Palestinian journalist Ali Abunimah. Max’s new book Goliath: Life and Loathing In Greater Israel shows the reader how the Netanyahu right wing government is actually moderate compared to most other institutions in Israel. His book takes a hard look at Israeli authoritarian politics from a cross section of interviews, from the homes of Palestinian activists to the political leaders behind the organized assault on democratic rights."]

Boal, Mark. "The Kill Team." Rolling Stone (March 27, 2011)

"Buying the War: How Did the Mainstream Press Get It So Wrong." Bill Moyers Journal (2007)

Bohdanova, Tetyana. "#EuroMaidan Medic Shot in Neck Lives to Tweet: 'I Am Alive!'” Global Voices (February 22, 2014)

Boullosa, Carmen. "A Report From Hell." Words Without Borders (March 2012)

Bromwich, David. "Stay Out of Syria!" The New York Review of Books (June 20, 2013)

Butigan, Ken. "A May to Remember." Waging Nonviolence (May 3, 2012)

Campbell, Howard. "The Drug War Zone." History for the Future (February 15, 2011)

Carlin, Dan. "An Army of One." Common Sense #260 (September 3, 2013)

---. "Blueprint for Armageddon I." Hardcore History #50 (October 29, 2013)

---. Carlin, Dan. "Blueprint for Armageddon II." Hardcore History #51 (January 30, 2014)

---. "Logical Insanity." Hardcore History (March 31, 2012)

---. "Old School Toughness." Hardcore History (April 27, 2010)

---. "Poking the Bear." Common Sense #270 (February 24, 2014) ["Ukraine has erupted in violence as protesters in Kiev oust the country's leader. Dan thinks U.S. efforts to clandestinely support or encourage one side of the conflict are dangerously short sighted."]

---. "Pyrrhic Schadenfreude." Common Sense (May 2, 2011)

Carrier, Scott. "Prisoner of Zion." Radio West (August 31, 2011)

Cho, Violet. "Thauk gya paw hee thwi deh thwi (Blood’s Oath to Beautiful Flower) — drama of insurgency in a Burmese Pwo Karen Film." Jump Cut #55 (Fall 2013)

Chomsky, Noam. "The Emerging World Order." Unwelcome Guests #622 (September 22, 2012)

---. "Palestinian Hunger Strike a Protest Against "Violations of Elementary Human Rights." Democracy Now (May 14, 2012)

---. "There Is Much More To Say" ZNet (May 2011)

---. "What the American Media Won't Tell You About Israel." AlterNet (December 3, 2012)

Clark, Ramsey and Harry Murray. ""Hancock 38" Defendants Found Guilty for Bold Army Base Protest Against U.S. Drone Attacks Abroad." Democracy Now (December 2, 2011)

"Clashes rage in Cairo for fourth day: Protesters battled police forces for the fourth consecutive day demanding an immediate end to military rule." The Real News (February 6, 2012)

Clumpner, Graham and Suraia Suhar. "U.S. Army Vets Join With Afghans For Peace to Lead Antiwar March at Chicago NATO Summit." Democracy Now (May 21, 2012)

Cohen, Stephen. "A New Cold War? Ukraine Violence Escalates, Leaked Tape Suggests U.S. Was Plotting Coup." Democracy Now (February 20, 2014)

Costs of War [Website of collected information and reports: Sponsored by Brown University and Watson Institute for International Studies]

Cramer, Mary Lynn. "Bomb Away Over Libya." Countercurrents (March 19, 2011)

Cavendish, Julius. "US’ New “Abu Ghraib” in Afghanistan." (March 22, 2011)

Chomsky, Noam. "On WikiLeaks, Obama’s Targeted Assassinations and Latin America’s Break from the U.S." Democracy Now (May 14, 2012)

Cole, Juan. "Top Ten Myths about Israeli Attack on Gaza." Informed Comment (November 17, 2012)

Cuellar, Claudia, Phil Donahue and Tomas Young. "Dying Iraq War Veteran Tomas Young Explains Decision to End His Life." Democracy Now (March 21, 2013)

Curtis, Adam. "The Baby and the Baath Water." The Medium and the Message (June 16, 2011)

Danner, Mark, Stephen Kinzer and Lawrence Wilkerson. "Iraq: What’s Known, What’s Unknown, What We Don’t Want to Know." Radio Open Source (April 3, 2014)

Debusmann, Bernd. "America's Problematic Remote Control Wars." Reuters (July 8, 2011)

Democracy Now ("Democracy Now!’s War and Peace Report provides our audience with access to people and perspectives rarely heard in the U.S.corporate-sponsored media, including independent and international journalists, ordinary people from around the world who are directly affected by U.S. foreign policy, grassroots leaders and peace activists, artists, academics and independent analysts. In addition, Democracy Now! hosts real debates–debates between people who substantially disagree, such as between the White House or the Pentagon spokespeople on the one hand, and grassroots activists on the other.")

Derluguian, Georgi. "The Making of Chechen Terrorists: The Clash of Forces and Discourses." The World Beyond the Headlines (January 27, 2004)

Dominus, Susan. "Suzanne Collins’s War Stories for Kids." The New York Times (April 8, 2011)

Donner, Fred and McQuire Gibson. "Iraq Before Saddam Hussein." CHIASMOS (April 3, 2003)

el-Shafei, Omar. "Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi Ousted Following Days of Massive Largest Anti-Government Protest" Law and Disorder (July 8, 2013)

Engelhardt, Tom. "The Enemy-Industrial Complex: How to Turn a World Lacking in Enemies into the Most Threatening Place in the Universe." TomDispatch (April 14, 2013)

---. "Monopolizing War." Guernica (September 14, 2012)

---. "Praying at the Church of St. Drone: The President and His Apostles." Tom Dispatch (June 5, 2012)

Escobar, Pepe. "
No Business Like War Business: Who Stands to Profit from Intervention in Libya? From the Pentagon to the French government to the water privatizers, here are some of the beneficiaries of the campaign in Libya."
AlterNet (March 30, 2011)

Espirit de Corps To the Best of Our Knowledge (May 16, 2008)

Falk, Richard and Mohammed Omer. "Live Report from Gaza Hospital: As Civilian Toll Mounts, Israel Again Bombs Palestinian Journalists." Democracy Now (November 19, 2012)

Falk, Richard and Raji Sourani. "U.N. Special Rapporteur Calls for Global Protection of Gaza Civilians from U.S.-Backed Israeli Assault." Democracy Now (November 19, 2012)

Finkelstein, Norman. "Waning Jewish American Support for Israel Boosts Chances for Middle East Peace." Democracy Now (June 4, 2012)

Foucault, Michel. Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the College de France, 1975 - 1976. NY: Picador, 2003.

Fry, Douglas P. "Peace in Our Time: Steven Pinker offers a curiously foreshortened account of humanity's irenic urges." Bookforum (December/January 2012)

Gabbatt, Adam and Richard Adams. "London riots: the third night – live coverage." Guardian (August 8, 2011)

"Getting Away With Torture: The Bush Administration and Mistreatment of Detainees." Human Rights Watch (July 12, 2011)

Goddard, Stephen. "'So, Did You See Me?': Testimony, Memory and Re-Making Film History." LOLA #1 (2011)

Godmilow, Jill. "Killing the Documentary: An Oscar-Nominated Filmmaker Takes Issue With The Act of Killing." IndieWire (March 5, 2014)

Gosztola, Kevin and Chase Madar. "Bradley Manning Trial: After 3 Years, Army Whistleblower Begins Court Martial Shrouded in Secrecy." Democracy Now (June 3, 2013)

Gourevitch, Philip. "Reporting the Story of a Genocide." Conversations with History (February 11, 2000)

Greenwald, Glenn. "AP believes it found evidence of Iran's work on nuclear weapons: A primitive graph provided by 'a country critical of Iran's atomic program' indicts the news outlet more than Tehran." The Guardian (November 28, 2012)

---. "Chilling legal memo from Obama DOJ justifies assassination of US citizens." The Guardian (February 5, 2013)

---. "Discussing the Motives of the Afghan Shooter." Salon (March 19, 2012)

---. "Obama's kill list policy compels US support for Israeli attacks on Gaza." The Guardian (November 15, 2012)

---. "Repulsive Progressive Hypocrisy." Salon (February 8, 2012)

Greenwald, Glenn and Jeremy Scahill. "Death By Metadata: Jeremy Scahill & Glenn Greenwald Reveal NSA Role in Assassinations Overseas." Democracy Now (February 10, 2014)

---. "Defying Threats to Journalism, Jeremy Scahill & Glenn Greenwald Launch New Venture, The Intercept." Democracy Now (February 10, 2014)

---. "Report: Obama Administration Considers Assassinating Another American Overseas." Democracy Now (February 10, 2014)

Grosscup, Beau. "Cluster Munitions and State Terrorism." Monthly Review 62.11 (April 1, 2011)

Hallinan, Conn. "Dangers of cyber attack greatly exaggerated." Redeye (January 24, 2012)

Hamparian, Aram. "The ARNCA Urges US President and Congress To Stop Attacks on Kessab." Law and Disorder Radio (April 7, 2014)["In the early hours of March 31, 2014 civilians in the ancient Armenian settlement of Kessab and surrounding villages were attacked by forces opposed to the Syrian government crossing the border from Turkey. Kessab is an Armenian-populated town situated in northwestern Syria. The cross border attacks, which included church desecrations, forced immediate civilian evacuation of the area, alarming Armenians around the globe concerned about the safety of their relatives. Considered safe haven for refugees fleeing nearby war torn cities in recent years, the local Armenian population in Kessab has increased. In response to the recent multi-pronged attack, the Armenian National Committee of America has called on President Obama and Congress to press Turkey to stop facilitation attacks on civilians in Kessab, to investigate Turkey’s reported assistance to foreign fighters associated with the U.S. designated terrorist groups and to direct humanitarian aid to victims in the Armenian settlement."]

Hastings, Michael. "Army Whistleblower Lt. Col. Daniel Davis Says Pentagon Deceiving Public on Afghan War." Democracy Now (February 15, 2012)

Hedges, Chris. "War is Betrayal: Persistent Myths of Combat." Boston Review (July/August 2012)

Hedges, Chris and Hamza Yusuf. "Does God Love War? (A Dialog on Religion and the State)." Unwelcome Guests #306 (May 14, 2006)

Hermes, Kris. "White-washing Human Rights Abuses and Suppressing a Popular Revolution." Law and Disorder (July 8, 2013)

Hersh, Seymour. "The Arab Spring, 'Disaster' U.S. Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and the Looming Crisis in Iraq." Democracy Now (June 3, 2011)

---. "Despite Intelligence Rejecting Iran as Nuclear Threat, U.S. Could Be Headed for Iraq Redux." Democracy Now (June 3, 2011)

Herzog, Werner and Errol Morris. "The Act of Killing." Vice (Video posted on Youtube: July 17, 2013)

Hiltermann, Joost. "Bahrain: A New Sectarian Conflict?" The New York Review of Books (May 8, 2012)

"History of US Interventions History Commons (Ongoing Historical Timeline)

Hogarth, Sarah. Post Coup Aftermath - Honduras." Law and Disorder Radio (January 31, 2011)

Holland, Joshua. "Scary Flashes of Iraq and Afghanistan Wars in the LAPD's Manhunt for Chris Dorner." AlterNet (February 8, 2013)

Hong, Christine. "New Era of Nuclear-Armed North Korea Forces U.S. to Reconsider War Games at Regime’s Door"> Democracy Now (April 4, 2013)

Horton, Scott. "The Torture Doctors." Harpers (November 4, 2013) [An expert panel concludes that the Pentagon and the CIA ordered physicians to violate the Hippocratic Oath.]

Howe, Darius. "West Indian Writer and Broadcaster Darius Howe Commenting on the London Riots." BBC (August 8, 2011)

Hrafnsson, Kristinn. "'The Kissinger Cables': Three Years After 'Collateral Murder,' WikiLeaks Explores U.S. Diplomacy." Democracy Now (April 8, 2013)

Hudson, David. "The Civil War @ 150 MUBI (April 12, 2011)

The Intercept ("The Intercept, a publication of First Look Media, was created by Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, and Jeremy Scahill. It has a two-fold mission: one short-term, the other long-term. Our short-term mission is to provide a platform to report on the documents previously provided by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden. Although we are still building our infrastructure and larger vision, we are launching now because we believe we have a vital obligation to this ongoing and evolving story, to these documents, and to the public. Our NSA coverage will be comprehensive, innovative and multi-faceted. We have a team of experienced editors and journalists devoted to the story. We will use all forms of digital media for our reporting. In addition, we will publish primary source documents on which our reporting is based. We will also invite outside experts with area knowledge to contribute to our reporting, and provide a platform for commentary and reader engagement. Our long-term mission is to produce fearless, adversarial journalism across a wide range of issues. The editorial independence of our journalists will be guaranteed. They will be encouraged to pursue their passions, cultivate a unique voice, and publish stories without regard to whom they might anger or alienate. We believe the prime value of journalism is its power to impose transparency, and thus accountability, on the most powerful governmental and corporate bodies, and our journalists will be provided the full resources and support required to do this. While our initial focus will be the critical work surrounding the NSA story, we are excited by the opportunity to grow with our readers into the broader and more comprehensive news outlet that the The Intercept will become.")

Iraq: The War Logs." (UK Guardian's archive and analysis of the Wikileaks Iraq War documents.)

"Iraq War Timeline: From "Shock and Awe" to Civilian Toll, to Billions in Reconstruction, Vet Health." Democracy Now (March 19, 2013)

Johnsen, Gregory D. "60 Words And A War Without End: The Untold Story Of The Most Dangerous Sentence In U.S. History." Buzzfeed (January 16, 2014)

Johnson, Chalmers. "Militarism and the American Empire." Conversations with History (2005)

"Julian Assange in Conversation with John Pilger." Top Documentary Films (2010)

Karski, Jan. "Polish Resistance Figure Jan Karski, Honored with Posthumous Medal of Freedom, in His Own Words" Democracy Now (June 5, 2012)

Kearns, Michael. "CIA Psychologist's Notes Reveal True Purpose Behind Bush's Torture Program." (March 22, 2011)

Keller, Bill. "The Inner Lives of Wartime Photographers." The New York Times (May 8, 2011)

Khalidi, Rashid and Salim Yaqub. "Constraining and Shaping Nationalism: The United States and Iraq." CHIASMOS (April 7, 2003)

Khamvongsa, Channapha, Thoummy Silaphan and Manixia Thor. "40 Years After Secret U.S. War in Laos Ended, Millions of Unexploded Bomblets Keep Killing Laotians." Democracy Now (April 4, 2013)

Kilkenny, Allison. "The Poster Boy For Unending War." The Smirking Chimp (February 20, 2014)

King, Martin Luther, Jr. "On 45th Anniversary of His Death, Martin Luther King Jr. on the Power of Media and the Horror of War." Democracy Now (April 4, 2013)

---. "Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam." (Video Excerpts of a Sermon at the Ebenezer Baptist Church on April 30, 1967)

Klein, Naomi. "Goldstone's Legacy for Israel." The Nation (February 14, 2011)

---. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. NY: Metropolitan Books, 2007.

Kinzer, Stephen and William Murphy, Jr. "US Wars and Social Control (From Regime Change Abroad to the War on Drugs at Home)." Unwelcome Guests #304 (April 30, 2006) ["In our first hour, this week, Stephen Kinzer, whose book, Overthrow, details the US empire's long history of instigating regime change, both the public pretext and the real interests at play. In our second hour, William Murphy Jr speaks about the "War On Drugs"."]

Kouddou, Sharif Abdel. "2 Years into Uprising, Bahrain Feels Like a 'Nation Under Occupation'." Democracy Now (February 21, 2013)

Kovalik, Daniel. "The CIA, Cocaine and Death Squads: The U.S. War for Drugs of Terror in Colombia." Counterpunch (February 16, 2012)

Kuznick, Peter and Oliver Stone. "The Untold U.S. History from the Atomic Age to Vietnam to Obama’s Drone Wars." Democracy Now (November 16, 2012)

Lapham, Lewis. "Crowd Control." Lapham's Quarterly (Spring 2014)

Larsen, Solana. "United Kingdom: London Burning (Videos)." Global Voices (August 8, 2011)

Lederach, John Paul. "The Art of Peace." On Being (July 8, 2010)

Leigh, David, James Ball, Ian Cobain and Jason Burke. "Guantánamo leaks lift lid on world's most controversial prison • Innocent people interrogated for years on slimmest pretexts • Children, elderly and mentally ill among those wrongfully held • 172 prisoners remain, some with no prospect of trial or release • Interactive guide to all 779 detainees." The Guardian (April 25, 2011)

Lobel, Jules. "Why America Is Losing the War on Terror." FORA TV (August 11, 2007)

Manningham-Buller, Eliza. "Securing Freedom." Reith Lectures (2011)

Margaronis, Maria. "Fear and loathing in Athens: The rise of Golden Dawn and the far right." The Guardian (October 26, 2012)

McGirk, Tim. "In Exiting Iraq, U.S. Military Discards Trove of Found Documents on 2005 Haditha Massacre of Iraqis." Democracy Now (December 21, 2011)

McGovern, Ray and Timothy Snyder. "Who Is Provoking the Unrest in Ukraine? A Debate on Role of Russia, United States in Regional Crisis." Democracy Now (March 3, 2014)

Mearsheimer, John and Robert Pape. "The War in Iraq and America's Role in the World." CHIASMOS (April 17, 2003)

Meer, Haroon. "Lessons from Anonymous on cyberwar: A cyberwar is brewing, and Anonymous reprisal attacks on HBGary Federal shows how deep the war goes." Al Jazeera (March 10, 2011)

Miller, Greg, Adam Goldman and Ellen Nakashima. "CIA misled on interrogation program, Senate report says." Washington Post (March 31, 2014)

Mitchell, Don. "You Who are the Bureaucrats of Empire, Remember Who We Are" History of a Weapon (April 6, 2004: Address at The Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University)

Morgan, Jason. "'The Troubles' in Northern Ireland." History for the Future (March 2, 2010)

Morris, Earl. "The Unknown Known: Errol Morris’ New Doc Tackles Unrepentant Iraq War Architect Donald Rumsfeld." Democracy Now (March 27, 2014)

"“Muscling in on the media” – a Reporters Without Borders look at organized crime." Reporters Without Borders (February 24, 2011)

Nader, Ralph. "Where are the Lawyers?: Obama at Large." Counterpunch (May 31, 2012)

Nevins, Joseph. "Drones and the Dream of Remote Control in the Borderlands." Counterpunch (May 3, 2012)

Newman, Zak. "What's the Difference Between Force Feeding and Waterboarding?" Blog of Rights (March 24, 2014)

Ng, Brady. "Drowning out the peacemakers in Nanjing." Waging Nonviolence (March 11, 2013)

""No NATO, No War": U.S. Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan Return War Medals at NATO Summit." Democracy Now (May 21, 2012)

Offenheiser, Raymond. "With Focus on U.S.-Led Strikes, Global Failure to Meet Syria’s Humanitarian Crisis Goes Unnoticed." Democracy Now (September 4, 2013)

Olzen, Jake. "NATO’s crisis of legitimacy spreads in Chicago." Waging Nonviolence (May 7, 2012)

Omer, Mohammed. "Breaking Truce, Israeli Strikes Kill "Moderate" Hamas Military Chief, Palestinian Civilians in Gaza." Democracy Now (November 15, 2012)

Open Society Justice Initiative. Globalizing Torture: CIA Secret Detention and Extraordinary Rendition. Open Society Foundations (February 2013)

Oppenheimer, Joshua. "The Act of Killing: New Film Shows U.S.-Backed Indonesian Death Squad Leaders Re-enacting Massacres." Democracy Now (July 19, 2013)

"Osama Bin Laden File." The National Security Archive (National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 343: May 2, 2011)

"Out of Exile: Special Reports on Ousted Honduran President Zelaya’s Return 2 Years After U.S.-Backed Coup." Democracy Now (May 31-June 1, 2011)

Parenti, Michael. "The Sword and the Dollar." Unwelcome Guests #4 (April 5, 2000)

Peebles, Stacey. "Stories from the Suck: The First Wave of Iraq War Narratives." Berfois (April 15, 2011)

Pilger, John. The War You Don't See. (UK: 2010, 97 mins)

Pinker, Steven. "The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined." Radio Open Source (March 10. 2014)

The Power of Nightmares (United Kingdom: Adam Curtis, 2004)

"Protests in Venezuela." Global Voices (Ongoing archive: 2014)

Quinn, Ben. "London riots and UK unrest: Tuesday 9 August [4th Night]." (August 9, 2011)

Rafael, Vincente. "Translation in Wartime." Arcade (2008)

Ratner, Michael. "Ten Years after 9/11: War, Operation American Condor (Guantanamo) , Civil Liberties and Hope." Law and Disorder Radio (July 25, 2011)

"Reporting the Egyptian Revolution." Listening Post (February 13, 2011)

"Responding to Genocide Today." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (Ongoing Project)

Ridley, Yvonne. "Bush Convicted of War Crimes in Absentia." Foreign Policy Journal (May 12, 2012)

Risso, Cristina. "War Crimes of General Stanley McChrystal." Project Censored (2010)

Rosen, Jay. "The Afghanistan War Logs Released by Wikileaks, the World's First Stateless News Organization." Press Think (July 26, 2010)

Rothrock, Kevin. "Pro-Maidan Video Goes Viral Thanks to Pavel Durov, Russia's Zuckerberg." Global Voices (February 22, 2014)

Rowley, Rick and Jeremy Scahill. "Dirty Wars: Jeremy Scahill and Rick Rowley’s New Film Exposes Hidden Truths of Covert U.S. Warfare." Democracy Now (January 22, 2013)

Scahill, Jeremy. "The Dangerous US Game in Yemen." The Nation (March 31, 2011)

---. "Killing Americans: On Obama Admin’s Admission 4 U.S. Citizens Died in Drone Strikes." Democracy Now (May 23, 2013)

---. "Secret Erik Prince Tape Exposed." The Nation (May 3, 2010)

---. "The World Is a Battlefield: Jeremy Scahill on "Dirty Wars" and Obama’s Expanding Drone Attacks." Democracy Now (April 24, 2013)

Scahill, Jeremy and Samer Muscati. "On Blackwater Founder Erik Prince’s Private Army of “Christian Crusaders” in the UAE." Democracy Now (May 18, 2011)

Schecter, Danny. "Nailing Osama: The Media's Delight." Al Jazeera (May 6, 2011)

Scheer, Robert. "There Goes the Republic." Truthdig (December 14, 2011)

The Secret Iraq Files (Aljazeera archive for the Wikileaks releases of military documents on the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars)

Seibel, Mark. "As U.S. Pushes For Syria Strike, Questions Loom over Obama Claims in Chemical Attack." Democracy Now (September 4, 2013)

Sethi, Najam. "A Pakistani Prescription for Af-Pak Peace." Open Source (November 16, 2010)

Sharlet, Jeff. "Norwegian Shooting Suspect’s Views Echo Xenophobia of Right-Wing Extremists in U.S., Europe." Democracy Now (July 27, 2011)

Sifton, John. "A Brief History of Drones." The Nation (February 27, 2012)

Sigal, Clancy. "Blair Mountain and labor's living history." The Guardian (November 11, 2011)

Simons, Marco. "Supreme Court to Decide Whether U.S. Corporations Can Be Sued for Abuses Overseas." Democracy Now (February 24, 2012)

Singer, Peter W. "On Drone Warfare." War News Radio (July 13, 2011)

---. "Wired for War." The Geek's Guide to the Galaxy #3 (July 18, 2011)

Smith, Dan. "Libya and the Fog of Intervention." Dan Smith's Blog (April 10, 2011)

"The Soundtrack to War and Peace." To the Best of Our Knowledge (October 1, 2010)

Sourani, Raji. "Palestinian Civilians Bear the Brunt of Unrelenting Bombings in U.S.-Backed Attack on Gaza." Democracy Now (November 19, 2012)

Sovyn, Olena. "#Euromaidan Protests Spread Throughout Ukraine After Explosion of Violence." Global Voices (February 20, 2014)

Springer, Claudia. :Taken by Muslims: Captivity Narratives in The Lives of a Bengal Lancer and Prisoner of the Mountains." Jump Cut #53 (Summer 2011)

The Spy Factory NOVA (February 4, 2009)

Stout, Robert Joe. "Do the United States and Mexico Really Want the Drug War to Succeed." Monthly Review (January 1, 2012)

Swanson, David. "Iraq War Among World's Worst Events." War is a Crime (March 2013)

Taibbi, Matt. "'Zero Dark Thirty' Is bin Laden's Last Victory." Rolling Stone (Reposted on Reader Supported News: January 17, 2012)

Taxi to the Dark Side (USA: Alex Gibney, 2007: 106 mins)

Taylor, Laurie. "The other side of the street: Laurie Taylor interviews Stan Cohen." New Humanist New Humanist 119.4 (July 2004)

Thompson, Paul. "Terror Timeline." Boiling Frogs (3 Pt interview: September 1, September 6, and September 16, 2011)

Turse, Nick. "Death on Your Doorstep: What Sebastian Junger and Restrepo Won’t Tell You About War." TomDispatch (July 13, 2010)

---. "Kill Anything That Moves: New Book Exposes Hidden Crimes of the War Kerry, Hagel Fought in Vietnam." Democracy Now (January 15, 2013)

"Uprising in Egypt: A Two-Hour Special on the Revolt Against the U.S.-Backed Mubarak Regime." Democracy Now (February 5, 2011)

Urie, Rob. "Obama Goes Full Bush on Syria." Counterpunch (September 8, 2013)

Varon, Jeremy. "Armed Struggle and the New Left." Against the Grain (September 28, 2011)

Venables, Robert. "Who Are These People?(The Onondaga Nation Encounters European Settlers)." Unwelcome Guests #302 (April 16, 2006)

Villoro, Juan. "Violence and Drug Trafficking in Mexico." Words Without Borders (March 2012)

Vizcarrondo, Sara. "The Art of 'Killing': How Much Truth Comes from the Lie that Tells the Truth?" Documentary (Summer 2013)

Yoshioka, Maximilian. "History or Humanity? On Lu Chuan's City of Life and Death A Nietzschean Perspective on Nanjing." Bright Lights Film Journal #76 (May 2012)

Walker, Alice. "Palestine Conditions "More Brutal" Than in U.S. South of 50 Years Ago." Democracy Now (September 28, 2012)

Wallechinsky, David. "Why Do They Hate Us (Revised Edition)." All Gov (September 9, 2011)

The War Logs (The New York Times: "An archive of classified military documents offers views of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.")

War Made Easy: How Presidents & Pundits Keep Spinning Us to Death (USA: Loretta Alper and Jeremy Earp, 2007)

Waxman, Zoe. "Words of Pain: Interpreting Personal Memories of the Holocaust." Backdoor Broadcasting Company (January 27, 2011)

Wikileaks (One of many mirror sites for this massive project designed to make vital secret information available to the public.)

Wise, Tim. Killing One Monster, Unleashing Another: Reflections on Revenge and Revelry (Website for the Author: May 2, 2011)

Woods, Chris. "As U.S. Escalates Pakistan Drone Strikes, Expansive "Kill List" Stirs Fears of Worse Civilian Toll." Democracy Now (June 5,2012)

Wright, Ann and Ed Kinane. "Drones on Trial: 38 Protesters Face Charges for Disrupting Syracuse Base Used in Overseas Attacks." Democracy Now (November 4, 2011)

Wright, Dani. "Afghan War: Largest Military Coalition in History." Project Censored (2010)

Yaqub, Salim. ""The United States and the Arab World: Sources of Antagonism, Prospects for Accommodation." [MB: A revealing historical background on the US government's alternating relationship with Iraq and Iran.] CHIASMOS (March 9, 2004)

Yue, Genevieve. "The Curtain’s Undrawn: An Interview with Olivier Assayas on Carlos." Senses of Cinema #57 (2010)

Zunes, Stephen. "Democrats Share the Blame for Tragedy of Iraq War." TruthOut (March 17. 2013)